INTRO TO CBD

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.

CBD is closely related to another important medicinally active phytocannabinoid: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound that causes the high that cannabis is famous for. These are the two components of cannabis that have been most studied by scientists.

Both CBD and THC have significant therapeutic attributes. But unlike THC, CBD does not make a person feel “stoned” or intoxicated. That is because CBD and THC act in different ways on different receptors in the brain and body.

CBD can lessen or neutralize the psychoactive effects of THC, depending on how much of each compound is consumed. Many people want the health benefits of cannabis without the high – or with less of a high.

The fact that CBD is therapeutically potent and easy to take as a CBD oil, makes it an appealing treatment option for those who are cautious about trying cannabis for the first time.

CBD BOTANICAL AND THE ENTOURAGE EFFECT

Cannabis is a botanical, a plant-based medicine, which is the more common concept in medicine historically. Only in the last 75 years has there been a shift in synthetic medicine.

A botanical does not rely on one compound to produce the beneficial effects, but rather many. This is the case in cannabis where there are over a hundred of related molecules, cannabinoids. Additionally, there are aromatic compounds, terpenoids, which can be in products like lemon, pine, chamomile which alter the effects of cannabinoids and often synergistic.

Synergy is a boosting effect which is the idea that adding synergistic compounds will have a greater benefit to the total outcome. Examples could include increasing the anti-inflammatory properties by adding turmeric or reducing side effects.

HOW IS CBD OIL MADE?

To make CBD oil, one must start with CBD-rich plant material. There are several ways to extract CBD oil from cannabis. Each method has its pros and cons. Some are safer and more effective than others.

After it is extracted from the plant and the solvent is removed, the CBD oil may be refined and formulated into a variety of consumable products – edibles, tinctures, gel caps, vape oil cartridges, topicals, beverages, and more.

The purpose of an extraction is to make CBD and other beneficial components of the plant (such as terpenes) available in a highly concentrated form. Because cannabinoids are oily by nature, separating CBD from the plant material will produce a thick, potent oil. The texture and purity of the oil depend largely on the method used to extract it.

CBD and the other plant cannabinoids are chemically classified as “terpenophenolic” compounds. To the non-scientists among us, this means that CBD is soluble in both oil and alcohol. Thus, the process of extracting CBD oil from cannabis often entails the use of a solvent that’s good at dissolving an oil or an alcohol-based compound. Solvents that are commonly used to extract CBD from cannabis include supercritical CO2, ethanol, hydrocarbons (such as butane) and olive oil.

WHAT IS WATER SOLUBLE AND HOW DO WE MAKE OUR WATER-SOLUBLE EXTRACT?

WATER SOLUBLE

Cannabinoids are sticky, waxy chemicals. They like to mix with oil, not water. There are, however, several ways to get cannabinoids to dissolve in water, allowing for products like CBD-infused and THC-infused beverages. But the research in this area is limited. The processes that make cannabinoids soluble in water may also make it easier for your body to absorb THC and CBD. This means that such products will have a quicker onset compared to an edible (as quick as 20 minutes) and the dose may be stronger over a shorter period.

The process of solubilizing CBD and/or THC can reverse over time, so groups developing water-soluble formulations need to ensure the stability of their product. Overall, ingesting water-soluble cannabinoids should not be much different than ingesting an edible, though the former may turn out to be faster acting and a bit more potent.

How we do it

Absorption is key. We use an all-natural fermentation process that converts hemp oil into water without the use of surfactants, emulsifiers, or any other non-food grade substances. ​

We are not hiding oil in water; the oil becomes the water. ​What does this mean? Because our solution is the water, they absorb into the body like water. In turn, avoiding first pass metabolism (how we break down food substance during digestion) creating up to 10x greater bioavailability than consuming oil extracts.

Our solution is naturally preserved meaning no need to worry about yeast, molds, or contamination.

WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO USE CANNABIS?

Cannabis and its extracts, like CBD oil, can be consumed in an astounding number of ways. Most options fall into a few general categories, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. You’ll experience different effects if you smoke CBD-rich flower or vape a THC-rich cartridge; swallow a gelcap or drop CBD oil under your tongue.

Everybody processes cannabis and cannabinoids a little differently. The diversity of human experience means that finding your ideal form of cannabis consumption may take some experimentation.

The key differences between ways of using cannabis pertain to these questions:

  1. Onset: How quickly will cannabinoids begin to work?
  2. Dose:What is a reasonable starting dose?
  3. Distribution:Which parts of the body will be most affected?
  4. Duration: How long will the effects last?

The dosage required, of course, depends on the quality of the product and the reason for its use. The doses we describe below are based on initially managing the psychoactivity of THC.

INHALATION: SMOKING AND VAPING

  • Onset: Seconds to minutes.
  • Dose: As little as a puff may be necessary. A typical joint is 0.3 – 1.0 grams of cannabis.
  • Distribution: Affects the lungs immediately, then the heart and brain, then is distributed fairly evenly throughout the body.[1]
  • Duration: Most effects, including psychoactivity, subside after 2-3 hours.

When drugs are inhaled through the lungs, they are sent to the brain before getting metabolized by the liver. This makes inhalation the fastest method for administering cannabis. Usually, between 20-30% of the phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD are absorbed this way. The heat from either smoking or vaporizing cannabis converts the acid cannabinoids into their neutral forms.

The short onset and duration make inhalation appropriate for acute problems (e.g. nausea or acute pain). The near-immediate onset also allows patients to titrate (adjust) and quickly find a desired dose. For those new to THC, overdose (getting too high) is short-lived when inhaling compared to other methods.

EDIBLES / CAPSULES

    • Onset: 1-2 hours.
    • Dose: The threshold for mild psychoactive effects is 3 mg THC in most new users. Doses of CBD-rich products range from 5 mg to hundreds of milligrams. [2]
    • Distribution: Absorbed through the gut and modified in the liver, then spreads evenly throughout the body.
    • Duration: Psychoactive effects subside after about 6 hours in most people. Other effects may last up to 12 hours.

    Ingested cannabinoids are absorbed through the intestines and sent to the liver. It takes about an hour to feel effects when taken on an empty stomach, or up to three hours with food. People should not re-dose THC edibles for at least three hours after ingestion.

    On the way to the liver, cannabinoids will interact with receptors in the gut, so the effect on conditions like inflammatory bowel disease will be more pronounced. Once in the liver, three enzymes will start to modify THC and CBD in a process called “first-pass metabolism.” THC is largely converted to 11-OH-THC, which appears to cause a stronger high than THC. This, along with the long duration of edibles, is why new users should become comfortable with being high before using edibles containing more than 5 mg of THC.

    The longer-lasting effect of edibles and capsules make them suitable for many chronic conditions.

    • Onset: 15 minutes to an hour.
    • Dose: 2.5-5 mg of THC and CBD is a common starting dose. This could cause a slight high in new users. [3]
    • Distribution: Absorbed into the bloodstream in the mouth, then distributes evenly.
    • Duration: After 6-8 hours, most of the THC and CBD has been metabolized or eliminated from the body.

    Oral-mucosal drugs are absorbed directly into the blood vessels in the mouth and under the tongue. If sprayed under the tongue, the patient should try to wait at least one minute before swallowing (see Accidental Ingestion below.) Effects usually start after 15-30 minutes and peak around an hour and a half after administration. For consistency, it is best to avoid eating immediately before or after using a tincture. [4]

    Oral mucosal tinctures usually come in one of two forms: an under-the-tongue spray or a dropper with a marking at a specific volume (usually 0.5 ml or 1.0 ml). This allows for consistent, measurable dosing. Pay close attention to the labels on these products. Products should be labeled with the dose of cannabinoids per spray or per ml.

    Tinctures involve a solvent like ethanol or sesame oil. [5] Some of the adverse side effects attributed to cannabis extracts may be due to ingesting large amounts of the carrier oil.

WHAT IS THE OPTIMAL DOSAGE OF CBD?

    • An effective dosage can range from as little as a few milligrams of CBD-enriched cannabis oil to a gram or more. Begin with a small dose of high CBD/low THC oil, especially if you have little or no experience with cannabis. Take a few small doses over the course of the day rather than one big dose. Use the same dose and ratio for several days. Observe the effects and if necessary adjust the ratio or amount. Don’t overdo it. Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Small doses of cannabis tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. Too much THC, while not lethal, can amplify anxiety and mood disorders. CBD has no known adverse side effects, but an excessive amount of CBD could be less effective therapeutically than a moderate dose. “Less is more” is often the case with respect to cannabis therapy.

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